12 The brain size of humans has also increased as the species has evolved, resulting in a larger head of the fetus that must exit the womb.7 The treatment of obstructed labour may require cesarean section or vacuum extraction with possible surgical opening of the symphysis pubis.

Archived from the original.1 Contents The main causes of obstructed labour include: a large or abnormally positioned baby, a small pelvis, and problems with the birth canal.

"Obstructed labor: using better technologies to reduce mortality".Gravida kvinnor som äter litium men som avbryter medicineringen, löper också ökad risk.1, problems with the birth canal include a narrow vagina and perineum which may be due to female genital mutilation or tumors.